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Forms of doing business


In Poland, as in other countries of the European Union, there are following types of business ownership:

  • commercial companies:

  • corporate enterprises (limited liability companies and joint stock companies)

  • partnerships (general partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited partnerships, and master limited partnerships),

  • private partnerships,

  • sole proprietorships,

  • branches and representative offices of foreign entrepreneurs.

Business activity can be conducted by foreigners on the same basis as Polish citizens (natural persons, legal persons, an organizational unit without the status of legal person, with a legal capacity).

  • from the Member States of the European Union,

  • from Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland,

  • from countries which are not signatories of the European Economic Area but bound by the agreements concluded by these countries with the European Union and its Member States,

  • citizens of countries which other than those listed above who are family members of persons mentioned in the points above, and also possess a residence permit under the Act of 12 December 2013 of foreigners (Journal of Laws of 2013, pos. 1650), are protected under the Act of 13 June 2013 on granting protection to foreigners within the territory of the Republic of Poland (Journal of Laws 2012, pos. 680) or hold the Pole’s card.

People who do not meet the above criteria may conduct business activities in Poland in the form of a limited partnership, master limited partnership, limited liability company or a joint stock company. Wider permissions can be granted by international agreements.


Source: The Act of 2 July 2004 on Freedom of Economic Activity ( Journal of Laws 2015 item 584).